Accueil Solutions cartographiques & IT Contact

Réseaux ferro­viaires : quelle repré­sen­ta­tion pour quel cas d’usage ?

Par La rédaction - 26 novembre 2018
Temps de lecture : 9min

Un réseau ferro­viaire, tout comme un réseau routier, est un réseau guidé comp­tant tout un ensemble d’en­trées et de sorties. Pour que les wagons ne se perdent pas, les aiguilleurs s’oc­cupent de les guider sur les voies afin de les mener des points d’en­trée aux points de sortie qui les concernent. Le réseau ferro­viaire est donc commandé, maillé, et peut être repré­senté de multiples façons : géogra­phique, sché­ma­tique, linéaire ou en 3D. Et à chaque repré­sen­ta­tion ferro­viaire répond un usage précis. Voici lesquels.

 

Repré­sen­ta­tion ferro­viaire carto­gra­phique ou géogra­phique

La repré­sen­ta­tion carto­gra­phique ou géogra­phique d’un réseau ferro­viaire est la repré­sen­ta­tion la plus fréquente et compré­hen­sible pour le grand public. Elle révèle une analyse globale tout en permet­tant de repé­rer des infor­ma­tions plus ou moins détaillées pour chaque péri­mètre géogra­phique.

 

représentation ferroviaire des réseaux
© G CHP – Wiki­me­dia Crea­tive Commons

 

Cas d’usage

D’une manière géné­rale, la posi­tion géogra­phique du train n’est pas indiquée. La repré­sen­ta­tion ferro­viaire carto­gra­phique n’in­dique pas les mouve­ments. Cette repré­sen­ta­tion se prête davan­tage à des usages connexes (foncier, secours, travaux) qu’aux exigences opéra­tion­nelles des gestion­naires de réseaux et d’in­fra­struc­tures.

Où retrou­ver cette vision ?

On la retrouve partout, tant sur une carte routière que sur Google Maps. Sur la majo­rité des cartes, le réseau ferro­viaire est repré­senté, car il peut repré­sen­ter un véri­table obstacle pour le passage des piétons ou des auto­mo­bi­listes.

 

Repré­sen­ta­tion sché­ma­tique

Cette repré­sen­ta­tion va mettre en avant la topo­lo­gie du réseau, c’est-à-dire déter­mi­ner quelles sont les liai­sons et les itiné­raires possibles ainsi que les points de déci­sion (gares, équi­pe­ments, etc.).

 

Zoom sur la topo­lo­gie

Le terme « topo­lo­gie » est issu du grec topos, qui désigne le lieu, et logos, le savoir. En bref, il s’agit de l’étude des lieux, qui inter­vient dans l’ana­lyse spatiale et traite des ques­tions de proxi­mité entre enti­tés mathé­ma­tiques.

Un réseau étant formé de nœuds, de segments, de sommets et d’arcs, on a recours à la topo­lo­gie en parti­cu­lier pour les ques­tions de chemi­ne­ment et de proprié­tés des réseaux. Le stan­dard RailTo­poMo­del, géné­ra­lisé par l’Union inter­na­tio­nale des chemins de fer (UIC), défi­nit la repré­sen­ta­tion topo­lo­gique de l’in­fra­struc­ture ferro­viaire.

 

Cette repré­sen­ta­tion est parti­cu­liè­re­ment perti­nente pour les profes­sion­nels du secteur ferro­viaire. Elle est suffi­sante pour tracer l’iti­né­raire d’un train partant de la gare A pour arri­ver en gare B. En cas de travaux, il est aussi possible de trou­ver le meilleur contour­ne­ment possible.

 

représentation ferroviaire des réseaux
© G CHP – Wiki­me­dia Crea­tive Commons

 

Cas d’usage

La vision sché­ma­tique est très adap­tée pour la gestion opéra­tion­nelle. Son appli­ca­tion dans le domaine de la main­te­nance est néan­moins limi­tée puisque, d’une part, tous les équi­pe­ments n’y sont pas repré­sen­tés et, d’autre part, la repré­sen­ta­tion ferro­viaire sché­ma­tique n’est pas à l’échelle : la posi­tion exacte des diffé­rents organes ne peut pas être simple­ment déduite du schéma.

Où retrou­ver cette vision ?

Cette repré­sen­ta­tion sché­ma­tique est mise à dispo­si­tion dans les trains (réseaux ferrés, métros). C’est une vision macro du réseau qui permet à chaque usager de connaître les corres­pon­dances qu’il peut emprun­ter pour rejoindre sa desti­na­tion.

Elle est égale­ment présente dans les postes d’ai­guillage ou les centres de gestion opéra­tion­nelle de circu­la­tion. Cette repré­sen­ta­tion ferro­viaire est affi­chée sur un tableau de contrôle optique repré­sen­tant le réseau.

 

Repré­sen­ta­tion linéaire

Cette repré­sen­ta­tion est utili­sée pour les gestion­naires des réseaux routiers et de tout autre moyen de trans­port. Elle permet d’iden­ti­fier l’in­té­gra­lité d’une ligne, d’une voie, d’une route. Tous les équi­pe­ments présents dessus sont repé­rables par la distance à l’ori­gine, qui est le kilo­mètre 0.

La descrip­tion linéaire est utile pour repé­rer tous les équi­pe­ments sur le réseau ferro­viaire et orga­ni­ser métho­dique­ment son plan de main­te­nance, car pour atteindre ces équi­pe­ments, les tech­ni­ciens voyagent souvent sur le réseau. Ici, toutes les distances sont mesu­rées et mention­nées.

 

représentation ferroviaire des réseaux
© G CHP – Wiki­me­dia Crea­tive Commons

 

Cas d’usage

Où retrou­ver cette vision ?

Cette repré­sen­ta­tion linéaire est acces­sible au grand public. Au-dessus des portes du wagon de métro, on retrouve un plan de la ligne. Ici, la vision du réseau est linéaire. Quand les corres­pon­dances sont visibles, la repré­sen­ta­tion ferro­viaire est sché­ma­tique.

 

Parlons avenir : la repré­sen­ta­tion 3D

De plus en plus, les gestion­naires de réseaux et d’in­fra­struc­ture réalisent des rele­vés de leur réseau en 3D avec diffé­rentes tech­no­lo­gies. L’une d’entre elles est le Lidar.

 

La tech­no­lo­gie Lidar

L’acro­nyme Lidar corres­pond à Light (ou Laser) imaging, detec­tion and ranging, c’est-à-dire détec­tion et esti­ma­tion de la distance par la lumière. Cette tech­nique de mesure de la distance repose ainsi sur l’ana­lyse des proprié­tés d’un fais­ceau lumi­neux renvoyé vers son émet­teur.

La mesure du déca­lage de fréquence entre l’onde émise et l’onde réflé­chie permet de calcu­ler la vitesse de dépla­ce­ment d’un objet, mais aussi de recons­truire en 3D des envi­ron­ne­ments enfouis ou visibles.

 

Cas d’usage

 

Les repré­sen­ta­tions des réseaux ferro­viaires sont multiples et répondent à diffé­rents cas d’usage. Pour satis­faire des besoins liés au foncier, à l’ac­ces­si­bi­lité aux voies ou aux décla­ra­tions de travaux, la repré­sen­ta­tion carto­gra­phique est préco­ni­sée. Là où les acti­vi­tés liées à la gestion opéra­tion­nelle et la main­te­nance des infra­struc­tures néces­sitent des repré­sen­ta­tions linéaires ou sché­ma­tiques. Enfin, pour diagnos­tiquer l’état du réseau, la 3D est la repré­sen­ta­tion ferro­viaire de choix. Leur point commun : toutes permettent la mise au point de stan­dards, qui rendent possible l’in­no­va­tion par les éditeurs de logi­ciels. Pour en savoir davan­tage sur ces stan­dards ferro­viaires, décou­vrez l’in­ter­view de Fabrice Simo­nin, direc­teur du pôle Rail GiSmart­ware !

 

Par La rédaction - 26 novembre 2018

8 716 réponses à “Réseaux ferro­viaires : quelle repré­sen­ta­tion pour quel cas d’usage ?”

  1. I was looking for another article by chance and found your article safetoto I am writing on this topic, so I think it will help a lot. I leave my blog address below. Please visit once.

  2. 19 For HER2, 3 is a positive result; 2 is equivocal, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization; and 1 is a negative result where to buy priligy in usa Patients receiving 1st LoT chemotherapy were more likely than those receiving endocrine with without targeted therapy to receive subsequent chemotherapy 26

  3. Wonderful blog! I found it while searching on Yahoo News.
    Do you have any suggestions on how to get listed
    in Yahoo News? I’ve been trying for a while but I never
    seem to get there! Many thanks

  4. Other BIRADS characteristics, shrinkage pattern or radiologic response were not associated with PEPI cialis generic 5mg Triple negative breast cancer TNBC, which is characterized by negativity for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2, is a high risk breast cancer that lacks specific targets for treatment selection

  5. Hello just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let you
    know a few of the pictures aren’t loading properly. I’m not sure why but I think its a linking
    issue. I’ve tried it in two different internet browsers and both show
    the same results.

  6. 2022 03 31 Not applicable US Millipred Tablet 5 mg 5mg Oral Laser Pharmaceuticals Llc 2008 10 01 2017 07 03 US Millipred Tablet 5 mg 1 Oral Aytu Therapeutics 2014 03 01 Not applicable US Novo prednisolone 5mg Tablet 5 mg Oral Novopharm Limited 1967 12 31 2005 08 10 Canada Prednisolone Syrup 15 mg 5mL Oral Ethex Corporation 2004 05 10 Not applicable US PrednisoLONE Syrup 15 mg 5mL Oral Par Pharmaceutical 2007 09 21 2019 06 30 US Prednisolone Syrup 15 mg 5mL Oral Physicians Total Care, Inc order cialis online

  7. It s normal for him to like you, Amy s face turned even redder, and her voice became even lower It s true that he has the highest mana, does amlodipine expire what foods or vitamins lower blood pressure but people who owns stromectol But every single one of them that chose implants knows about their risks

  8. buying cialis online safe Survivors at risk of experiencing high levels of fear of recurrence included women survivors, individuals younger than 59 years, those at 5 to 7 years postdiagnosis, socially isolated individuals, those with lower education levels, and individuals with a history of metastases or recurrence

  9. Amanda J Daley, Kate Jolly, Natalie Ives, Susan A Jebb, Sarah Tearne, Sheila M Greenfield, Lucy Yardley, Paul Little, Natalie Tyldesley Marshall, Hannah Bensoussane, Ruth V Pritchett, Emma Frew, and Helen M Parretti buy cialis online us Cancer 88, 726 732 2000

  10. Everything information about medication. Everything what you want to know about pills.
    https://nexium.top/# can i purchase generic nexium for sale
    Cautions. drug information and news for professionals and consumers.

  11. You’re so interesting! I don’t think I’ve truly read through anything like this before.
    So nice to discover another person with some genuine thoughts on this topic.
    Seriously.. many thanks for starting this up.
    This web site is something that’s needed on the web, someone
    with a little originality!

  12. drug information and news for professionals and consumers. Everything information about medication.
    https://edonlinefast.com treatment for ed
    Medicament prescribing information. Comprehensive side effect and adverse reaction information.

  13. Excellent pieces. Keep posting such kind of information on your page.
    Im really impressed by your site.
    Hi there, You have done a fantastic job. I will certainly digg
    it and personally suggest to my friends.
    I’m confident they’ll be benefited from this web site.

  14. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme.

    Did you create this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you?
    Plz reply as I’m looking to construct my own blog and would like to find out
    where u got this from. thanks

  15. I was wondering if you ever considered changing the page layout of your site?
    Its very well written; I love what youve got to say.
    But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better.
    Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or 2 images.
    Maybe you could space it out better?

  16. Hello there! I could have sworn I’ve been to this web site before but after
    browsing through many of the articles I realized it’s new to me.
    Anyhow, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be bookmarking it and checking back regularly!

  17. Learn about the side effects, dosages, and interactions. Drug information.
    tadalafil pills 20mg
    Everything information about medication. Prescription Drug Information, Interactions & Side.

  18. Comprehensive side effect and adverse reaction information. Best and news about drug.
    cialis 36 canada
    Learn about the side effects, dosages, and interactions. Drug information.

  19. Prescription Drug Information, Interactions & Side. Commonly Used Drugs Charts.

    https://prednisoned.top/ prednisone canada pharmacy
    drug information and news for professionals and consumers. Everything about medicine.

  20. Howdy! This post couldn’t be written much better!
    Reading through this post reminds me of my previous roommate!

    He constantly kept preaching about this. I’ll forward this post to him.
    Pretty sure he will have a very good read. Thanks for sharing!

  21. You really make it seem really easy together with your presentation however I
    find this topic to be actually something that I feel I would by
    no means understand. It sort of feels too complex and extremely large for me.
    I’m having a look forward to your next post, I’ll try to get the dangle of it!

  22. I do not know if it’s just me or if perhaps everybody else encountering problems with your site.

    It appears as if some of the written text within your posts are running off
    the screen. Can somebody else please provide feedback and let me know if this is happening
    to them too? This could be a issue with my browser because I’ve had this happen previously.
    Thanks

  23. Pretty component of content. I just stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to assert
    that I get actually loved account your weblog posts. Anyway I will be subscribing on your feeds and even I success you get right of
    entry to constantly fast.

  24. Hi there! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could get a captcha plugin for my comment form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having difficulty finding one? Thanks a lot!

  25. I needed to thank you for this wonderful read!! I absolutely enjoyedevery bit of it. I have you book marked to look at new thingsyou post…

  26. I think this is one of the most important information for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But want to remark on few general things, The site style is ideal, the articles is really nice : D. Good job, cheers

  27. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It truly useful & it helped me out a lot. I hope to give something back and help others like you helped me.

  28. Hi there! Do you know if they make any plugins to help with SEO? I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very good results. If you know of any please share. Kudos!

  29. Greetings! Very useful advice within this post! It’s the little changes that produce the biggest changes. Thanks for sharing!

  30. Hi, I do believe this is an excellent blog. I stumbledupon it 😉 I’m going to return once again since I book-marked it. Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and continue to help other people.

  31. Wonderful site. A lot of useful information here. I’m sending it to some pals ans also sharing in delicious. And of course, thank you in your effort!

  32. Hi there, I found your web site by means of Google at the same time as searching for a similar topic, your web site got here up, it appears good. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  33. An interesting discussion is worth comment. I think that you ought to write more about this topic, it may not be a taboo subject but typically people don’t talk about these issues. To the next! Many thanks.

  34. I am not sure where you are getting your information, but greattopic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understandingmore. Thanks for great info I was looking for this information formy mission.

  35. I blog frequently and I seriously appreciate your content. This article has really peaked my interest. I am going to book mark your blog and keep checking for new information about once a week. I opted in for your RSS feed too.

  36. Thank you for any other magnificent article. Where else may anyone get that kind of information in such a perfect way of writing? I have a presentation next week, and I am at the look for such information.

  37. Hi, Neat post. There is a problem with your site in internet explorer, may check this? IE still is the marketplace leader and a large portion of other people will miss your fantastic writing due to this problem.

  38. With havin so much content and articles do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or copyright violation? My website has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either created myself or outsourced but it appears a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my agreement. Do you know any solutions to help protect against content from being ripped off? I’d certainly appreciate it.

  39. I want to to thank you for this fantastic read!! I certainly enjoyed every little bit of it. I’ve got you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post

  40. With havin so much written content do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or copyright violation? My site has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either authored myself or outsourced but it appears a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my agreement. Do you know any techniques to help stop content from being ripped off? I’d certainly appreciate it.

  41. At the beginning, I was still puzzled. Since I read your article, I have been very impressed. It has provided a lot of innovative ideas for my thesis related to gate.io. Thank u. But I still have some doubts, can you help me? Thanks.

  42. That is a very good tip especially to those new to the blogosphere. Brief but very precise info… Appreciate your sharing this one. A must read post!

  43. A fascinating discussion is worth comment. I believe that you need to write more about this subject matter, it may not be a taboo matter but typically people don’t speak about these issues. To the next! Kind regards!!

  44. I wanted to thank you for this fantastic read!! I certainly enjoyed every bit of it. I’ve got you saved as a favorite to check out new things you postÖ

  45. Heya i am for the primary time here. I came across this board and I to find It really useful & it helped me out a lot. I hope to offer one thing back and help others like you aided me.

  46. I must thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this blog. I’m hoping to check out the same high-grade blog posts by you later on as well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my own, personal blog now 😉

  47. That is a very good tip particularly to those freshto the blogosphere. Brief but very accurate information… Appreciate yoursharing this one. A must read post!

  48. This is a great tip particularly to those fresh to the blogosphere. Simple but very precise infoÖ Thank you for sharing this one. A must read post!

  49. I’ll right away grab your rss as I can not find your e-mail subscription link or e-newsletter service. Do you have any? Please let me know so that I could subscribe. Thanks.

  50. Generally I don’t learn article on blogs, but I would like to say that this write-upvery forced me to try and do so! Your writing taste has been surprised me.Thank you, very nice article.

  51. Oh my goodness! an excellent article dude. Thank you Nonetheless We’re experiencing problem with ur rss . Don’t know why Can not register for it. Perhaps there is anyone finding identical rss dilemma? Anybody who knows kindly respond. Thnkx

  52. It’s really a great and useful piece of information. I am glad that you shared this useful information with us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing. 온라인카지노

  53. Hi, I do believe this is an excellent blog. I stumbledupon it 😉 I will revisit once again since i have book marked it. Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide other people.

  54. I wanted to thank you for this excellent read!! I definitely enjoyed every little bit of it. I’ve got you saved as a favorite to check out new things you postÖ

  55. You can definitely see your enthusiasm within the paintings you write. The arena hopes for even more passionate writers such as you who aren’t afraid to mention how they believe. All the time go after your heart.